Outdoor Literature (PE 4440)

 

Lecture Notes

   

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Robert Falcon Scott Reading - the Anthology of the Outdoor Experience


Your Assignment:   Read Robert Scott in the Anthology (pp. 108 - 118)

 

 

Sir John FranklinA Brief History of Arctic Exploration

 

1845

Sir John Franklin (British)

 

In 1845 Franklin launches a British expedition with the intention of finding the fabled Northwest Passage.

Franklin disappears.

 

 

1850

Clements Markham (British)

 

Several expeditions are sent to rescue Franklin but none are successful.  On one of those unsuccessful attempts is 20-year old Clements Markham.  In time, Markham will become head of the Royal Geographic Society and play an important role in sending expeditions to Antarctica

 

 

Fridtjof Nansen

1893 - 1896

Fridtjof Nansen (Norway) 

Missionary Generation (1861 – 1930)

 

1898

Roald Amundsen (Norway) Missionary Generation (1872 – 1922)

AND Fredrick Cook (US) Missionary Generation (1865 - 1940)

 

1903

Robert Falcon Scott (British) Missionary Generation (1868-1912)

AND Edward Wilson (British) Missionary Generation (1872-1912)

AND Ernest Shackleton (British) Missionary Generation (1874-1922)

 

In 1903, the first British expedition with the goal to reach the South Pole is organized and under Robert Falcon Scott's command they reach 82 degrees south.

 

Scott, Wilson, Shackleton: First British Attempt South Pole

 

 

1904 - 1906

Roald Amundsen (Norway) Missionary Generation (1872 – 1922)

 

From 1904 to 1906, Roald Amundsen successfully traverses the all-water route through the Northwest Passage.

 

Amundsen and the Northwest Passage

 

 

1908

Fredrick Cook (US) Missionary Generation (1865 – 1940)

Cook claims to have reached the North Pole in 19o8.  His claim is later discredited.

 

 

1909

Robert Peary (US) Progressive Generation (1856 – 1920)

 

Peary claims to have reached the North Pole in 1909.  His claim was accepted, but many years later, it was discredited.

 

 

Cook & Peary Claims to the North Pole

 

 

 

1909

Ernest Shackleton (British) Missionary Generation (1874-1922)

 

In 1909, Shackleton's leads the second British attempt to reach South Pole.

His party reaches 88 degrees south.

 

 

1910 - 1912

Robert Falcon Scott (British) Missionary Generation (1868-1912)

Roald Amundsen (Norway) Missionary Generation (1872 – 1922)

 

Robert Scott organizes and leads the third British expedition to Antarctica.  

 

While Scott is sailing south to start his expedition, it is his understanding that Roald Amundsen is embarking on an expedition to the North Pole.  Amundsen, however, has made a change in plans.  Because Cook (or Peary) has already reached the North Pole (it isn't until later that both claims are discredited), he decides to turn his ship, the Fram, to the south and make an attempt on the South Pole.

 

On the way to Antarctica, Scott stops in Australia and receives the following telegram:


BEG TO INFORM YOU FRAM PROCEEDING ANTARCTIC - AMUNDSEN

 

The stage is set for a race to the South Pole pitting the Scott's British team against Amundsen's Norwegians.

 

The following map shows Scott's and Amundsen's routes to the South Pole:

 

Scott & Amundsen's Route to the South Pole

 

Amundsen turns out to be the winner, reaching the South Pole a month before Scott.  His party returns safely.  Scott's party, however, perishes on the return journey. 

 

Your reading in the Anthology comes from Scott's journal in which describes the last few days of that journey.

 

The following are the members of Scott's polar party:

 

Robert Scott's Party

 

 

Scott's party on the journey:

Scott's Party

The following map shows the location of supply caches (depots) where Scott's party has left food, fuel and supplies for the return journey:

Location of Robert Scott's Supply Caches

 

Scott's last entry in his journal . . .

 

Robert Scott's Last Words

 

 

 

1914 - 1916

Ernest Shackleton (British) Missionary Generation (1874-1922)

 

In 1914 Shackleton leads an Expedition to traverse Antarctica. His ship (the Endurance) becomes trapped and crushed.  More on this expedition in our next reading.

 

 

1921-1922

Ernest Shackleton (British) Missionary Generation (1874-1922)

 

In 1921 Shackleton begins another Antarctic expedition and dies en route of heart failure.   He is buried at South Georgia Island

 

 

1926

Admiral Richard Byrd (US) Lost Generation (1888- 1957)

 

1926 Byrd announces that he has flown over the North Pole, but his claim is later discredited.

 

 

1926

Roald Amundsen (Norway) Missionary Generation (1872 – 1922)

Umberto Nobile (Italian) Lost Generation (1884-1978)

 

In 1926, three days after Byrd's claim, Amundsen flies over in a dirigible.   The dirigible is piloted by Umberto Nobile.  Although he didn't actually travel across the ice to get there, it is, nevertheless, another towering achievement for Amundsen.  He becomes the first not only to reach the South Pole, but the North Pole as well.

 

 

1928

Roald Amundsen (Norway) Missionary Generation (1872 – 1922)

Umberto Nobile (Italian) Lost Generation (1884-1978)


In 1928 Nobile turns up missing while on another expedition in the Arctic.  Amundsen searches for him.  The search plane goes down and Amundsen is lost

 

 

Amundsen's & Nobile's Dirigible

 

 

[End]

 

 

 

 


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